Unlike many other plants, intensive grazing on Bermuda grass results in an increase in carbohydrate accumulation in the below-ground structures (Weinmann 1961). Additionally, HTN affects about one billion people worldwide  and it is estimated that by 2025, up to 1.56 billion adults worldwide will be hypertensive . 1977).The following is a description of the general life-cycle of Cynodon dactylon. Although it is not native to Bermuda, it is an abundant invasive species there. The rhizome system is superficial as well as deep, which may account for the ability of this species to infest both arable and waste lands in a variety of conditions. Digitaria ciliaris Echinochloa colona. Increasing the level of nitrogen while maintaining a low light setting results in a further reduction in growth; nitrogen fertilizer increases the retarding effect of low light on shoot, root and rhizome yield, and decreases the amount of reserve carbohydrates while increasing the amount of crude proteins (Burton et al. Cynodon dactylon, known as Bermuda grass, Dhoob, dūrvā grass, ethana grass, dubo, dog's tooth grass, Bahama grass, devil's grass, couch grass, Indian doab, arugampul, grama, wiregrass and scutch grass, is a grass that is native to most of the eastern hemisphere. In addition to competing with native plants for nutrients, Cynodon dactylon presents a direct threat to agricultural crops and possibly to natural vegetation by acting as an alternate host to eleven arthropods, twelve nematodes and numerous viruses (Holm et al. Herbicide application in conjunction with tilling and desiccation may be the most effective control technique. 1969. Plantae > Tracheophyta > Liliopsida > Poales > Poaceae > Cynodon > Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Cynodon is a genus of plants in the grass family. Plant residues and actively growing plant parts of Cynodon dactylon may pose a direct threat to the growth of neighboring plants (Friedman and Horowitz 1970, Horowitz and Friedman 1971). Uninfested sites with bare or unshaded spots surrounded by areas containing Bermuda grass: If the site is undisturbed than most likely Bermuda grass will not invade it. 1966. The best management practice is to avoid the initial invasion of Cynodon dactylon by limiting soil disturbances and maintaining a vegetation cover. Cynodon dactylon can be an invasive and competitive weed. 1988. Agronomy Journal 79:423-424. The high temperature requirements explain the five times greater increase in sod area for June through November than for December through May (Horowitz 1972a). On 22nd day the animal was induced to develop PCOS. Tagging the edge of each cluster yearly may help in visually assessing the expansion or reduction in the infested area and in rapidly locating the problem site. comm.) Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Accepted name. Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) Life Cycle and Growth Habit. Management strategies depend on the extent of Bermuda grass and the height of the native vegetation. Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon). Journal of Applied Ecology 8:85-98. Typical smut symptoms appear at ﬂowering when glumes and ovaries of all the Burton, G., J. Hook, J. Butler, and R. Hellwig. Small actively growing rhizome and stolon fragments are susceptible to drying within one week (Webb 1959, Horowitz 1972b). Prine, G., and G. Burton. Cynodon species and their value for grazing and hay. Although, synthetic contraceptive are available, these cannot be used continuously due to their side effects. Any one of the methods will not … A random sampling of segments of the infested field may provide sufficient information for large scale problems. In general, total available carbohydrates in the rhizomes increases in the fall, peaking between November and December, decreases in late winter and begins increasing in late spring, reaching a second, but lower, peak in May, and then decreasing in the summer (Horowitz 1972b). The subterranean dry weight averages 0.6 kg per m3 of soil within a 1 m radius from the center of the plant. Studies on competition in mixed plots of wheat and Cynodon dactylon showed similar intra- and inter-specific competition for nutrients when plants were planted at the same time (Ramakrishnan and Kumar 1971). Jeff Weigel, Director of Stewardship, The Nature Conservancy, P.O. The leaves are used to make an infusion, decoction, paste, and even juice is taken for a few ailments. Both weeds infest crop production areas in tropical and temperate climates, causing large losses in crop yields. Means of propagation - method of reproduction. Munz, P.A. 2b. Agronomy Journal 58:523-525. 1989. If appropriate, planting of tall plants between the invaded and non-invaded sites may prevent spreading into the exposed area. The effects on carbohydrate reserves of nitrogen amendments to shaded plants should be analyzed. The greatest regrowth occurred around the irrigated trees. Rhizomes are the primary over-wintering structure (Holm et al. Many years of spot control may be required until all remaining Bermuda grass is removed or until the ground is covered by the native vegetation. Life Cycle Comments Perennial By the mid-1900s Bermuda grass had been introduced throughout the southern states and now ranges from California to Florida and occasionally north to Massachusetts and Michigan (Hitchcock 1950). Heathman, S., K. Hamilton, and J. Chernicky. Crop Sci. Box 1440, San Antonio, TX 78295-1440; (512) 224-8774. Burton, G., and W. Hanna. Pl. Crop Science 9:774-778. dactylon (from here on referred to by the species name), which have spread to other countries (Harlan 1970). Low density mono-culture plots of Cynodon dactylon promoted early vegetative spreading growth with delayed reproductive development, whereas in high density plots the period of vegetative growth was shortened and floral development was hastened. Ye T, Chan Z it displaces desirable types of grass and tubers nutsedge. It … Cynodon dactylon ) level ( Horowitz 1972a ) name this name is the accepted name ( record ). And de wet 1969 ) not Bermuda ) in 1751 and is widely spread throughout southwest. Around the trees to reduce the competition of annual grasses allowing the rhizomes and stolons of Bermuda results! 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